aplastic anemia
Life Science

A disease where damage to a person's hematopoietic stem cells, the cells responsible for creating new blood, causes their bone marrow function to be decreased, which in turn results in decreased production of red blood cells, white blood cells, and megakaryocytes, the precursor to blood platelets. This can lead to anemia, increased risk of hemorrhaging and bruising, and frequent infections due to a weakened immune system. Exposure to radiation, chemical additives, or industrial chemicals such as pesticides are some of the known causes. It can also be brought on as a side effect of certain drugs. Approximately 20% of people who develop it die within a year.

Karen Hojo suffers from secondary aplastic anemia as a result of radiation exposure while living on Beyond Coast. Countless other people on Beyond, where injury from drugs is widespread, have also developed this disease due to the side effects of prescription drugs. It is considered one of the most problematic diseases of the 21st century, and has been placed in its own category on Earth. There is currently a movement going on to try to get aplastic anemia officially designated as one of the diseases of outer space, though a definitive answer has yet to emerge.

For the last several years, repatriatists have been pursuing legal action against the ISPA and the Beyond Coast government regarding the classification of this disease.

artificial blood
Life Science / Technology

A type of blood developed to improve the oxygen and nutrient transportation efficiency of blood, as well as to provide a solution to the lack of blood available for transfusions. Based mainly on substances such as perfluorocarbons and fluorescein diacetate, which were used in the latter half of the 20th century for storing organs, it is also called "milk blood", because its red blood cells are white in color. It does indeed possess superior oxygen transportation efficiency and regenerative abilities, but the heavy burden it places on the kidneys makes it necessary for them to be genetically modified and for the user to undergo regular hemodialysis before it can be used for extended periods of time. For these reasons, it is not permitted for medical use among the general public; it is presently only authorized for use within the military and in members of BCP's AP Unit. In addition to milk blood, there is a second-generation powder type made with genetically modified hemoglobin, and a third-generation type containing 100% artificial blood cells, but both of these types are still undergoing clinical trials.

A person using artificial blood has their original blood placed in cryogenic storage and can switch back to it at any time.

artificial organ
Life Science / Technology

Any one of a group of man-made organs developed as replacements for human organs such as the heart and kidneys. Artificial organs designed for permanent use currently do not exist; they are mainly used in bridge-to-transplants as temporary replacements until a donor can be found. There are hybrid organs in development that combine organic tissue with synthetic materials, but creating fully functional replacements for organs such as the pancreas and the liver remains challenging.

Acronyms / Life Science / Society

Acronym for Beyond Coast Central Hospital. The largest general hospital on Beyond Coast. Chris Goldwin serves as its director. It employs approximately 800 doctors, divided into 25 departments. It is the most advanced transplant hospital in the world, famous on Earth as well; there are many patients who travel all the way from Earth just to receive treatment there. It has also been designated as the colony's emergency relief hospital, ready to assist in the event of an accident or disaster. The first floor consists of examination rooms, the second floor and above for patient rooms. In addition, it has its own zero G ward located in the center of the colony.

Beyond Coast Organ Distribution Network
Information and Communications / Life Science / Society

A network allowing for the registration and exchange of information related to all aspects of organ transplantation, such as donor and recipient blood types. Established in 2015 as a response to the beginning of the era of mass organ donation, which includes hearts, livers, kidneys, bone marrow, corneas, joints, and bones.

biodegradable plastic
Life Science / Society / Technology

A type of plastic that breaks down into hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon within 1 to 2 weeks when mixed with compost. The accumulation of plastic materials in landfills had been a problem since the latter half of the 20th century until the development of this plastic at the beginning of the 21st. Modern biodegradable plastic is made primarily out of a lactic acid polymer, with the lactic acid obtained by fermenting various starches. It can then be injection molded, or processed into film or fiber. It has simultaneously solved both the waste disposal problem and the oxygen replenishment problem on Beyond Coast, with all products required to be made out of biodegradable plastic wherever possible.

Life Science

Compound noun of Greek origin, made up of bios, meaning "life", and ethikos, meaning "moral philosophy". An academic field that emerged in the latter part of the 1960s, it involves numerous different fields of thinking, such as life science, medical science, medical treatment, nursing, law, politics, economics, philosophy, theology, religion, ethics, literature, and the arts, which have all come together to study how new advances in science impact our perception of the value of life, and ways that society can address these advances.

Anna Brown majors in bioethics at UCBC.

Life Science

An organism or substance hazardous to human beings and/or other organisms. As experimentation in biotechnology has progressed, the chances of a genetically modified harmful organism escaping out into the general population have increased. Laboratories on Earth have set up strict isolation protocols, but even so, there have been calls for all such experimentation to be moved to outer space.

Life Science / Technology

A field of science that, among other areas, studies the flight mechanisms of animals and plants and applies these findings to engineering. There are many organisms in nature possessing mechanisms that allow them to fly extremely long distances while only using very small amounts of energy; this science uses these discoveries to make new advances in man-made flight.

The flight mechanisms used in EMPS and massquitoes were created with technology developed in this field.

Life Science / Society

A person who is brain dead. Some distinguish between a biomort and a neomort, or someone who has recently become brain dead. Different from a person in a persistent vegetative state, where only the cerebral cortex has stopped functioning; with a biomort, it is the brainstem, the body's own life-support system, which is no longer functioning. The cells of a biomort can be kept alive by giving it hormones or life-extending drugs such as vasopressors, and also by connecting it to artificial organs such as an artificial respirator. At the end of the 20th century, the criteria used for determining brain death varied from country to country, region to region, but a worldwide consensus on establishing brain death was finally reached with the beginning of the Space Age at the start of the century.

Culture and Sports / Life Science / Society / Technology

A person who has undergone sex reassignment treatment at the genetic level, instead of via previous techniques such as surgery and hormone treatment; therefore, it is also possible for a woman to become a man with this method. While not permitted by law in most industrialized countries, sex change operations are conducted in many developing countries. However, because gene therapy sex changes require highly specialized facilities, it is thought that the number of people actually performing them is extremely limited.

black poppy
Life Science / Society

A so-called "bio poppy", developed through genetic engineering of the opium poppy, traditionally valued for ornamental and medicinal purposes. It is the main ingredient of the semi-synthetic drug Narc, offering a particularly pure opium extract. Although its petals are purple, the black spots on its pods have earned it the name the "black poppy". It is said that one would need a specialized facility containing considerably advanced technology to cultivate such a genetically modified and delicate species of plant, but nevertheless, the government has gone to great lengths to strictly ban all black poppy cultivation.

bone marrow transplantation
Life Science / Technology

A treatment for blood diseases such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, malignant lymphoma, and various immunodeficiency diseases, where bone marrow stem cells are taken from a donor and implanted into a recipient, allowing them to once again produce healthy blood. It was once also used to combat the decreased bone marrow function that can occur as a side effect of cancer treatment. The recipient's diseased hematopoietic stem cells, the cells responsible for creating new blood, are killed off with radiation and then substituted with the donor's healthy bone marrow. However, if the donor and recipient do not possess matching HLA types, a severe rejection reaction will occur following the transplant. There were previously numerous cases of a rejection reaction occurring even when HLA types matched, resulting in low success rates, but success rates have since risen considerably by giving the recipient substances such as biological proteins before the procedure, thereby reducing the occurrence of such reactions.

It was once necessary to remove approximately 1 liter of stem cells directly from the donor's femur, which resulted in the donor having to be hospitalized and placed under anesthesia, but it is now possible to extract stem cells from the bloodstream, or what is known as peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Following extraction, the stem cells are then cultured in a laboratory. This type of transplant has also virtually eliminated the number of accidents during procedures.

Life Science / Technology

A method of temporarily extending a person's life through artificial or animal organs until a matching organ donor can be found. There are many cases of patients whose lives have been extended through the use of large-sized artificial organs as replacements for failed organs. Almost all artificial organs are still neither small nor durable, and are therefore used mainly as a temporary measure.

calcium foods
Culture and Sports / Life Science / Outer Space / Society

Bones, joints, and muscles undergo considerably less stress in weightlessness than normal gravity, causing the calcium in bone cells to be leached from the body. Calcium foods, also known as "cal foods", were developed as a way to replace this lost calcium. Examples include capsules containing crushed eggshells and milk containing casein phosphopeptides. A famous dish in calcium cuisine consists of mixing one of these with soybeans and seaweed, both of which are particularly high in calcium.

Many others methods have been developed for replacing calcium, which tends to be lost easily when living in outer space. Almost all food and drink consumed in space is either naturally high in calcium or is supplemented with calcium. One can also find products such as calcium chewing gum and candy, calcium carbonated beverages, and calcium seasonings.

Acronyms / Culture and Sports / Life Science / Outer Space / Society

Acronym for Closed Ecological Life Support System. The system that regulates the internal environment on space colonies, space bases, and underwater bases, enabling them to function on their own. The structure exists as an independent biosphere, totally unreliant on any outside assistance or intervention to sustain itself.

Beyond Coast supplies all the food its inhabitants need and recycles its energy in accordance with this system.

circadian rhythm
Life Science

The natural internal clock all organisms possess. The daily biological rhythm this clock produces is called a circadian rhythm, while monthly and seasonal rhythms can be classified as biorhythms. If a person's circadian rhythm becomes disrupted, this can have various negative effects on the body. All space colonies and bases establish a daily rhythm of day and night to help their inhabitants maintain their circadian rhythm. On Beyond Coast, this even includes creating the illusions of dawn and dusk, to which organisms are known to be sensitive.

cluster transplantation
Life Science

A transplant method whereby several organs, instead of just one, are transplanted together as a group. There are numerous cases of elderly recipients requiring multiple organ transplants. By transplanting organs such as the stomach, the duodenum, the small intestine, and the colon together, any possible rejection reaction caused by the transplantation of organs from multiple donors can be avoided.

cold sleep
Life Science / Outer Space / Technology

An artificial sleep induced by lowering the body's temperature and having it use only the minimum amount of energy necessary to keep itself alive. As controlling the body's temperature is extremely difficult, this method requires a special capsule equipped with an electronic freezing device. Post-thaw muscle atrophy, among other issues, was a problem surrounding early cold sleep techniques, but this has since been overcome through studying the hibernation of bears. Cold sleep is also now called "hibernation" for this reason.

However, because certain aspects of cold sleep, namely its safety, still remain unclear, it has yet to be permitted for official use. Astronauts are therefore forced to endure long-distance space flights without the luxury of cold sleep, a fact that has led to the spread of illegal drugs throughout space.

The Yuri involved in the Yuri accident of 2013 was connected to an early version of the survival ball cold sleep unit. The accident turned out to be valuable test data for cold sleep, helping to improve the technology.

Astronaut Jonathan Ingram's 25 years is the record for the longest amount of time a person has spent in cold sleep.

cosmic ray exposure
Life Science / Outer Space / Society

Cosmic rays, or highly energized particles continually moving throughout space, can have various effects on the human body. Sudden exposure to large doses of cosmic radiation can cause the widespread death of cells or even total body surface area burns. Up until now, space development has had no way of protecting against cosmic rays, which pose a significant danger to anyone exposed to them regardless of the length of time. An investigation into the true nature of the problem was not started until mankind had already moved out into space, and it is now the most significant problem surrounding long-distance space travel and space base construction. Beyond Coast has taken preventive measures to combat the problem, such as the creation of solar flare forecasts and shield warnings, but in reality, the effects of radiation exposure on space colonists continue to grow.

It is said that exposure to high-energy cosmic radiation can cause flashing lights to appear in one's field of vision, similar to the effects of optic neuritis.

Life Science / Outer Space / Society

A fear of outer space. The darkness, cramped conditions, and restricted access to oxygen experienced when in space for long periods of time can cause feelings of extreme unrest and panic in some people, and can even lead to breathing difficulties or cardiac arrest in severe cases. It is commonly reported among astronauts participating in long-distance flights and long-term space station workers. Cosmophobia is one of the reasons Narc use has become so widespread in space, and one of the most fundamental problems regarding future deep-space exploration is how to overcome these psychological hurdles.

Jonathan Ingram suffers from cosmophobia as a result of his EMPS accident.

Life Science / Technology

An immunosuppressive drug developed by Tokugawa Pharmaceuticals. Able to completely suppress post-transplant rejection reaction, it led to the widespread adoption of organ transplantation. Unlike previous immunosuppressive drugs, it contained no side effects and only affected the transplanted cells, and was widely used until the development of transplant technology that prevents any rejection reaction, such as masked transplantation.

Acronyms / Life Science / Technology

Acronym for drug delivery system. A system for delivering drugs that reduces side effects by giving organs and tissue only the necessary amount of a drug, while limiting its distribution to other areas of the body. The delivery systems can be classified as: transdermal, transmucosal, alimentary, and injection. In addition, other drugs such as sustained-release drugs, prodrugs, and antedrugs are also part of the DDS class, as is Tokugawa Pharmaceuticals's K Series.

defense wound
Life Science

An injury, such as scratches or subcutaneous bleeding, which appears on a victim's body in cases of homicide as a result of the victim resisting their attacker. Also called a sign of homicide, it is used to distinguish between instances of suicide and homicide.

designer foods
Life Science / Society

A type of food, containing vitamins and/or certain approved chemical additives, which has the same effect as a drug. Like functional foods, the most popular designer foods are calcium-related products, calcium being easily lost in outer space.

DNA fingerprinting
Life Science

A method of identifying a person from a DNA sample. Blood and other bodily fluids, hair, and even bones can be used in this process. Except for identical twins, every person's DNA sequence is unique, making identification through this process conclusive. DNA can be extracted from as little as 2 to 5 microliters of blood or a single strand of hair, for example.

Life Science / Society

A person who donates one or more of their organs or tissue to a recipient. With the development of immunosuppressive drugs and transplant technology that prevents rejection reactions, the dangers surrounding organ transplants have been reduced while their possibilities have expanded. The diseases and physical abnormalities caused by living in outer space have led to increased demand for organs on Beyond Coast. However, the severe donor shortage it currently faces is forcing researchers to develop new ways to prolong the lives of those waiting for a transplant. Artificial organs are presently being used in bridge-to-transplants, and the possibility of replacing certain organs with animal organs, or heterogeneous transplantation, is also being studied. Organizations like the ISPA are trying to combat the donor shortage in space by having colonies join the worldwide donor network.

drug identification code
Life Science / Technology

The mark or code printed on a drug or its packaging to differentiate it from other products. Each pharmaceutical company has its own identification codes, with most codes now holographic. There are also some drugs whose code changes color once it has reached its expiration date, in order to alert the user.

drug profit margin
Life Science / Society

Whenever a consumer buys a drug, they are charged a set price for it. However, as the result of a free market economy, the seller of the drug, such as a pharmacy, is able to obtain most drugs from pharmaceutical companies at a discount. The difference in price between what the consumer pays for a drug and what the seller pays for a drug is called the drug's profit margin. The profit that doctors and pharmaceutical companies earn from this system has long been the subject of controversy. It is said that one of the reasons for Tokugawa Pharmaceuticals's success can be attributed to Tokugawa bringing this system of high drug prices, seen before in post-war Japan, to Beyond Coast. The problems of the high drug profit margin and over-prescription of drugs have been quietly talked about between medical professionals in recent years, but pressure from Tokugawa has prevented the enactment of any reforms. This profiteering has been criticized by some on Earth, with people calling Beyond a "colony of drug victims". This delicate situation makes a separation of Beyond Coast's medical industry still unfeasible for the time being.

Life Science / Outer Space / Society / Technology

A person created from an artificially fertilized egg held in cryogenic storage by the government, which is then later transferred to a surrogate mother for gestation and delivery. A Frozener's egg is inserted with genetic information that makes the individual better adapted to space's environment and allows them to endure a wide range of activities in space that would give a normal person great difficulty. Since Frozeners are legally in a special class of their own, they are tattooed with an identification code on their forehead. Frozeners are very common on Beyond Coast and are not discriminated against in any way by other Beyonds. Many are employed by the military or work in government positions. Frozeners call the government, who raise them, "Breeders". It is rumored that they are given anti-aging treatment through telomere lengthening.

functional foods
Life Science / Society

A type of food designed to help prevent various adult diseases and diseases associated with obesity, as well as to delay the aging process and regulate the body's functions. Most of the functional foods found on Beyond Coast are for replacing lost calcium. They combine an appealing taste with the proper amount of vitamins and minerals necessary to maintain an overall healthy body function.

Products that have met the special standards set on Beyond for functional foods receive the label, "A Recognized Beyond Functional Food".

G biology
Life Science / Outer Space

A newly developed area of space life science. All organisms that have evolved on Earth are influenced by its gravity; this field of science attempts to crack the various mysteries of life by examining the functional relationships between gravity and organisms.

Life Science

The process of using a machine, instead of the kidneys, to filter a person's blood. Previously used as renal replacement therapy for people with end stage renal failure or acute renal failure, it has lately come into use also by people employing artificial blood, which would overwhelm ordinary human kidneys.

The process involves a semipermeable membrane, part of the dialyzer, usually made out of cellophane. Blood is circulated on one side of the membrane, while dialysis fluid, or the dialysate, is circulated on the other side. Waste products pass through the membrane into the dialysate and out the body. The subject is given a continuous infusion of low molecular weight heparin during dialysis to prevent blood clots from forming in the dialyzer, but too much heparin can stop all blood clotting and lead to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia afterwards. Accordingly, when an AP member is cut, they lose close to twice as much blood as an ordinary person; however, new dialysis fluids are currently being developed to try to counteract this.

Every AP's computer console and bed are outfitted with their own dialysis machine that remains on standby 24 hours a day.

heterogeneous organ transplantation
Life Science

A transplant procedure that transplants an organ or tissue taken from an animal. One of the most common examples is the use of pig hearts that have been spliced with human DNA. With the development of new transplant techniques, the danger of the animal passing on an infection to the recipient has been lowered; however, they have come into use more as a bridge-to-transplant than a permanent replacement. Many organizations and industries oppose such transplants on ethical grounds, and they are not officially permitted or supported by the government.

There have been numerous documented cases of this type of transplant throughout history, such as the transplantation of baboon livers into humans at the end of the 20th century.

Life Science

Acronym for human leukocyte antigen. Histocompatibility antigens are proteins used by the immune system to differentiate self cells from non-self cells. The system of histocompatibility antigens found in humans is collectively called HLA, with one's HLA genes determining one's HLA type. HLA proteins can be found on the surface of all cells except for red blood cells, and if a transplant recipient receives an organ or tissue with a different HLA type, this will cause a rejection reaction whereby the body will attack the cells of the foreign organ or tissue, which it treats as an invader.

There are numerous antigens, and virtually millions of possible HLA types, due to the nature in which they are inherited from one's parents. HLA types are particularly important in regard to bone marrow transplants. Histocompatibility tissue tests are conducted to determine whether a donor and a recipient share a common HLA type; this is done by examining the lymphocytes in the subjects' blood.

Life Science / Technology

Acronym for Intensive Care Unit. Also known as a "cocoon". A hospital ward designed to monitor the bodily functions, including breathing and circulation, of critically injured or post-operative patients. A patient can be monitored around the clock here, with an artificial respirator to assist or replace spontaneous breathing, an electrocardiogram for observing heart function, and various systems for replenishing bodily fluids and providing the body with nutrients. The ICU also allows hospital staff to respond immediately to any sudden worsening of a patient's condition. BCCH boasts the largest and most advanced ICU on Beyond Coast; the hospital has also been designated the colony's emergency response facility.

Furthermore, an ICU allows a patient to be isolated in a sterile environment for extended periods of time, should they develop an immunodeficiency disease. Their waste products can be removed, they can be provided nourishment through intravenous tubes, and their body can be cleaned all while remaining in protective isolation. All the know-how and technology acquired from the development of spacesuits, cold sleep pods, and monitoring systems for the elderly have been used to refine the ICU over the years, to the point where it has now become semiautomated.

informed consent
Information and Communications / Life Science

In medical terms, this refers to the information a doctor is required to convey to a patient regarding a diagnosis and treatment; they must ensure that the patient understands and agrees to undergo a course of treatment based on the following main principles:

1. Inform the patient of their current condition and diagnosis.

2. Inform the patient, in terms they can understand, the goals and particulars of any procedure deemed necessary for their treatment.

3. Explain any possible risks of a given treatment.

4. Explain the success rate of a given treatment.

5. Go over any other treatment methods applicable to the patient's medical condition, should they exist.

6. Inform them of what might happen should they reject any form of treatment.

They must not simply tell them this information; they must ensure that the patient understands it as well. This doctrine is built on the idea that the relationship between a doctor and their patient is based on mutual agreement, not one where a patient must blindly obey their doctor regardless of the situation.

intraocular lens
Life Science

An artificial lens used in place of the eye's own crystalline lens, placed directly inside the eye and serving the same function. In addition to offering much improved vision, intraocular lenses have a more physiological refractive index than glasses or contact lenses, lowering the mental and physical stress on their owner. All AP members have intraocular lenses in their eyes to assist them in their work, which demands superior eyesight. It is said that intraocular lenses make the owner's eyesight 2 to 3 times more powerful than that of a normal person's, and they are also able to withstand any changes in water or air pressure. Originally developed to safeguard the eyesight of people working in extreme areas.

masked transplantation
Life Science / Technology

A transplant method that does not affect the recipient's immune system by masking an organ's class I HLA antigens with antibody fragments before transplantation. This method has eliminated the occurrence of rejection reactions with organ transplants, previously their biggest problem.

The development of masked transplantation, in addition to ending the age of Tokugawa's revolutionary immunosuppressive drug, cypusloidine, greatly changed the image surrounding organ transplants as well.

Life Science / Technology

A micromachine medical robot jointly developed by Tokugawa Heavy Industries and Tokugawa Pharmaceuticals. A portmanteau of the words "mass" and "mosquito". Designed to resemble and behave like the mosquito, it is intended for use in drawing blood from people or animals for blood exams as well as administering shots. It is also being studied for possible use as a replacement for biological pesticides, since it would not disturb the CELESS. However, a series of accidents and ethical questions have prevented it from being officially permitted for any use. More than serving the medical world, the massquito has instead helped advance micromachine technology.

medical accessory
Culture and Sports / Life Science / Society / Technology

A DDS fashion accessory built out of an alloy containing a particular drug, which is absorbed into the body at the points of contact between the skin and the metal. Many types are available, including rings, bracelets, and earrings. A number of medical professionals are concerned that with conventional medical treatments such as pills, which require regular doses, there is the possibility that patients might forget to take a dose, which would reduce the effectiveness of the medication. With a medical accessory, all patients have to do is simply wear it to ensure they get the proper dosage of their medication.

The designs of medical accessories have been gradually refined over the years, to the point where they cannot be distinguished from normal fashion accessories. Some are even more desirable than normal accessories, with one in particular, a bracelet for treating peptic ulcers devised by a famous fashion company, achieving widespread popularity with its creative design. However, since they are only issued for medical purposes and are not sold to the general public, there have been numerous cases in recent history of young women intentionally developing an ulcer just so they can wear one.

medical industry separation
Life Science / Society

A medical system where a doctor performs a diagnosis and issues a prescription that is then filled separately by a pharmacist. Under this system, there must be a consensus between the doctor and the pharmacist regarding the prescription, which helps prevent doctors from over-prescribing drugs. There is a growing number of people calling for this system to be implemented on space colonies, where over-prescription is a common occurrence.

Life Science / Technology

A micro-sized machine, several hundredths of 1 millimeter to several centimeters in size, composed of micro-sized mechanical parts and drive mechanisms. Examples include various micro-sized medical robots; the massquito, developed by Tokugawa Heavy Industries and Tokugawa Pharmaceuticals, is a type of micromachine. A more common type of machine is a nanomachine, its use of organic parts allowing it to be even smaller than a micromachine.

Life Science / Society / Technology

A semi-synthetic narcotic composed of a natural drug, a synthetic drug, and a hallucinogen, engineered through supercomputer-aided drug design. Nicknamed "the drug". It is made by combining opium taken from black poppy pods with a pethidine-based synthetic drug, and then to that adding a hallucinogen containing lysergic acid derivatives obtained from ergot alkaloids. Mixing this particularly potent genetically engineered opium extract with a chemical structure nonexistent in the natural world produces a narcotic and hallucinogenic effect never before seen with any drug. It was popular among astronauts seeking to relieve the psychological strain that comes with being in outer space. It then spread quickly with the start of long-distance space flights and the completion of bases on the Moon and Mars, with people looking for a way to deal with the extended periods of time in space associated with such jobs.

The drug is so powerful that even a few milligrams can be fatal. This makes it difficult to detect in drug tests, as people take it in extremely small doses, meaning it does not become very concentrated in the body. Narc also attaches to opioid peptides, natural opiates that originate in the pituitary gland of the mammalian brain, doubling the effects of the morphine it contains.

Rumor has it that the mafia and certain other organizations are responsible for Narc. It is said that approximately 20% of adults on Beyond Coast have tried at least one illegal drug at some point in their life, a rate second only to America, which is still fighting its war on drugs.

osmotic pressure system
Life Science

A system that uses osmotic pressure to evenly circulate a controlled amount of a substance throughout the human body even in weightlessness. Employed in products such as Tokugawa Pharmaceuticals's K-9 DDS capsule.

Outer Space Medical Examination System
Life Science / Outer Space / Society / Technology

The system set up to help prevent a pathogen like a virus from entering a closed environment such as a space colony. All spaceports are staffed by specialist doctors who perform a full space medical exam on all arriving persons.

P300 lie detector
Life Science / Society / Technology

A lie detector designed to analyze P300 brain waves, which are given off when, among other situations, a person recognizes a familiar object. On Earth, the use of this lie detector along with brain imaging techniques such as MRI has become an important form of evidence at legal trials. Science has now unlocked many of the previously unsolved mysteries of the human brain, with lawyers taking a more physiological approach to cases as a result.

Poggendorff's illusion
Life Science

An optical illusion first described by the German scientist Johan Poggendorff in 1860. He observed that a diagonal line appears disjointed when it is intersected by two parallel lines.

Life Science

A type of DDS consisting of a drug in its inactive form that is then converted into its active form in vivo by metabolic processes. By making a drug with particularly severe side effects into a prodrug, any effects to other areas of the body can be reduced. Antedrugs, designed to reach only diseased areas, also use this system.

psychiatric nurse
Life Science

A nurse who offers psychiatric care to patients, particularly those who are terminally ill or undergoing long-term treatment. Psychiatric nurses have proven to be as invaluable as the actual physical treatment in helping patients combat an illness.

Chris Goldwin, BCCH's director, also works as a psychiatric nurse.

Life Science / Society / Technology

A type of cloned human created from the DNA of a famous historical figure such as an actor or model. The law prohibits anyone from "Rebirthing" a person until 20 years after the person's death. Although they are genetically identical, a Rebirther is not regarded as the same person as the one that originally existed. The law now requires that Rebirthers be differentiated from the original person by placing identification tags on the Rebirther's chromosomes.

In reality Rebirthers are not very common, though some can be found within the Tokugawa Group. Such individuals are legally regarded as members of the Tokugawa family.

Life Science / Society

A person who receives an organ or tissue from a donor. The incidence of diseases and organ abnormalities caused by the harsh environment of outer space is increasing rapidly, with the number of people waiting for healthy organs and/or tissue rising proportionately.

Return Syndrome
Life Science / Outer Space / Society

A syndrome characterized by the desire to return to Earth. Is frequently seen among middle-aged Terrestrials living on Beyond Coast. Almost all missing person cases on Beyond are instances of Return Syndrome. The exact cause remains unclear, but it is only reported among Beyonds who lived on Earth when they were younger, particularly those who took part in the first or second wave of immigration. Some have speculated it might be caused by the constant stress that comes with living in space, with the individual developing an extreme version of homesickness. Many people who have experienced Return Syndrome later said they became filled with the sudden urge to return to Earth, or "return Home", in their words, and immediately boarded the next available flight for Earth without even so much as informing their family.

Life Science / Outer Space / Society

Acronym for Space Adaptation Syndrome. A type of temporary sickness caused by exposure to a weightless environment. It is said that the cause of SAS is a vestibular disorder, whereby the vestibular system undergoes a paralysis, causing one to lose one's sense of balance. Symptoms include dizziness, cold sweats, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and, in particular, a false feeling of falling over that does not occur in ordinary motion sickness. The most effective treatment is an intramuscular promethazine injection.

Conversely, the bodily changes experienced when moving from a zero G environment to a 1G environment are collectively called Earth Adaptation Syndrome.

selective mutism
Life Science

An anxiety disorder, observed almost exclusively in children, where the individual either chooses not to or is unable to speak for some psychological reason. Sometimes the individual will try to speak but tenses up and is unable to produce sound.

Marc Brown is said to be afflicted with selective mutism.

surrogate mother
Life Science / Society

A woman who gestates and delivers a baby created from an egg fertilized in vitro, often in return for financial compensation. Although surrogate mothers hold no parental rights, many end up wanting to raise the baby as their own child after it is born. There are various opinions on using surrogate mothers for giving birth to Frozeners; as the development of an artificial womb has yet to be completed, however, no viable alternative is currently available.

telomere lengthening
Culture and Sports / Life Science / Society / Technology

A medical procedure developed this century that delays the aging process by manipulating pieces of DNA responsible for aging called telomeres. Telomeres, located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and composed of a six-base DNA sequence of TTAGGG in humans, are tightly wound and highly repetitive structures that are extended over time by telomerase, a special reverse transcriptase, in order to prevent cellular senescence. However, the action of telomerase is not enough to extend telomeres indefinitely, due to the nature of cellular division. As these structures are considered an aging clock for the body, it is thought that by synthesizing telomerase and thereby extending telomeres as they naturally decrease with every cell division, it is possible to extend an organism's life span. While not permitted by law, it is said that the military, along with certain government organizations, have already started performing this procedure on people via gene therapy. A consequence of telomere lengthening is an increased risk of cancer, though this too is addressed via gene therapy. Further research is currently being conducted that will attempt to turn normal cells into immortal cells without the aid of such regular procedures.

transplant coordinator
Life Science / Society

A person who works with organ donors and recipients, helping to arrange expedient transplant operations for patients. Also called a transplant manager. There are currently over 4,000 transplant coordinators on Beyond Coast.

ultra-high pressure sterilization
Life Science / Technology

A sterilization method that uses extremely high pressure to kill pathogens. Developed as an alternative to heat sterilization, which can cause changes in an object's composition or even its destruction. This method allows for perishable foods to be stored over long periods of time while maintaining their freshness. It is particularly valued on Beyond Coast, whose citizens consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables. It is now also used to sterilize medical equipment and waste, and is part of the infection control system in hospitals as well.

viroid S
Life Science

The smallest known pathogen, composed solely of a single strand of RNA, which invades plant cells and can cause disease. Containing no protein structures, viroids infect mainly agricultural plants, with this viroid only infecting Papaveraceae, or the poppy family. It spread throughout Beyond Coast in 2035, wiping out all poppy cultivation. It has never been reported on Earth, which has led some to speculate it is a mutated version of an Earth viroid. Called viroid S because its structure resembles the letter S of the Roman alphabet.

vital reaction
Life Science

If an injury noted on a corpse, such as bleeding or rupture of epidermal tissue, occurred before death, this will be reflected in the quality of the injury. This evidence is called a vital reaction, and is used to determine if a body was tampered with after death.

zero G salon
Culture and Sports / Life Science / Outer Space / Society

A type of salon located at the center of Beyond Coast, in its weightless area, which takes advantage of the effects of zero gravity to preserve the youthfulness and elasticity of a person's skin. The skin is also much less likely to sag and become wrinkled in general in zero gravity. Many of the treatment methods employed were originally devised by female astronauts.

Chris Goldwin goes to a zero G salon.

zero G ward
Life Science / Outer Space

A hospital ward that treats patients in zero gravity. Housing patients with a herniated disc, repetitive strain injury, or myasthenia gravis, for example, in weightlessness, and thus avoiding the stress bones and muscles experience under normal gravity, has offered new ways of treating conditions previously difficult to treat. It is also used for treating people who have become bed-ridden or have experienced total body surface area burns.

Most of the patients housed here are Terrestrials, as problems such as these occur far more frequently in Terrestrials than in Beyonds.